Prof. Pitkin, M.R. Dr. Tech. Sci. Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Phone 617-636-7000, e-mail: email@example.com
In the heading: Original researches
Year: 2021 Volume: 3 Journal number: 3
Article type: scientific and practical
Introduction. Attention is drawn to the natural mechanisms of airway cleansing that rely on the systems of fluid transport in the body, with particular emphasis on the relationship between breathing and swallowing. Arguments are given about the fundamental role of swallowing in the process of cleansing the trachea, bronchi and sinuses from sputum and mucus. A sanomechanical technique for enhancing the natural cleansing of the respiratory tract as a prophylaxis for asthmatic syndrome and the formation of polyps in the nasal cavity is presented. It is proposed to include this technique in the rehabilitation program for people with disabilities after bilateral amputation and with congenital underdevelopment of the upper extremities.
Aim. The aim of this work is to outline a methodology for the prevention of common breathing problems.
Materials and methods. The hydromechanical aspects of the mechanism of natural airway clearance and the use of periodic involuntary induction of swallowing reflex are considered. The role of the conscious activation of this mechanism is traced. A three-stage system of actions is proposed for voluntary preparation of the nasopharynx for clearing excess sputum and nasal mucus through.
Results. A three-stage technique has been developed for voluntary induction of the swallowing reflex to clear excess sputum and nasal mucus.
Discussion. The proposed method is an integral element of the Sanomechanics system, which combines exercises performed with a specific criterion of correctness and with an understanding of their biomechanical role. It is possible to modify the methodology for teaching young children who either have difficulties or are unable to use usual sanitary and hygienic techniques.
Conclusion. Initially, the technique was developed by the author to solve his own problems and to minimize the consequences of the formation of polyps in the nose. After eliminating polyps without surgery, he continues to exercise routinely to clear the airways in the morning, evening, and as needed, such as during a cold. This article was written on the recommendation of colleagues from the Albrecht Federal Scientific Centre of Rehabilitation of the Disabled, St. Petersburg, Russia, to discuss the possibility and feasibility of using the technique in the rehabilitation system for children and adults after bilateral amputation or congenital underdevelopment of the upper limbs.
1. D. Elad RC. Schroter, Respiratory Biomechanics. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2008;163(1-3):1-2.
2. Ghadiali SN, Gaver DP. Biomechanics of liquidepithelium interactions in pulmonary airways. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2008;163(1-3):232-243.
3. Lojtsjanskij LG, Mehanika zhidkosti i gaza [Mechanics of liquid and gas] Tehteoretizdat [Techteoretizdat]. Moskva, Leningrad [Moscow, Leningrad] 1950.
4. Schmidt RW, Wasserman K, Lillington G, The effect of air flow and oral pressure on the mechanics of breathing in patients with asthma and emphysema. American Review of Respiratory Disease. 1964;90(4):564-571.
5. Beitler SR, Lindahl EJ. Hydraulic machinery, Ronald Press Co. New York. 1953.
6. Pitkin M. Biomechanics for Life. Introduction to Sanomechanics. Heidelberg, Dondrecht, London, New York: Springer; 2011. http://www.springer.com/ medicine/orthopedics/book/978-3-642-17176-5
7. Rubinov IS, Fiziologija i patofiziologija zhevanija i glotanija [Physiology and pathophysiology of chewing and swallowing]. Medgiz [Medgiz]. 1958. (In Russian).
8. Gray H, Lewis W. Anatomy of the human body. Bartleby. com, 2000; Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1918.
9. Smetnev A, Jurevich V. Respiratornaja terapija v klinike vnutrennih boleznej [Respiratory therapy in the clinic of internal diseases]. Meditsina [Medicine]. Moskva. [Moscow]. 1984. (In Russian).
10. Chamberlain Mitchell SAF, Ellis J, Ludlow S, Pandyan A, Birring SS. Non-pharmacological interventions for chronic cough: The past, present and future. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2019;56:29-38.
11. Troosters T, Blondeel A, Janssens W, Demeyer H. The past, present and future of pulmonary rehabilitation. Respirology. 2019;24(9):830-837.
12. Dedhia RC, Strollo PJ, Soose RJ. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Past, Present, and Future. Sleep. 2015;38(6):899-906.
13. Didur MD, Kurnikova MV, Cherednichenko DV, Pridannikova VD. Respiratornaja reabilitatsija. Otdel’nye voprosy ponjatijnoj i terminologicheskoj garmonizatsii (nauchnyj obzor) [Respiratory rehabilitation. Individual issues of conceptual and terminological harmonization (scientific review)]. Fizicheskaya i reabilitacionnaya medicina [Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine]. 2021;3(1):19-27. (In Russian).
14. Gupta RS. Pranayama: A Conscious Way of Breathing. New Age Books. 2002.
15. Pitkin M. Sanomechanics for Respiration. Biomechanics of Lower Limb Prosthetics. Heidelberg, Dordrecht, London, New York: Springer. 2011.
16. Pitkin M. Teorija vnutrennego gidravlicheskogo ‘ekzoskeletona i sistema sanomehanika (Sanomechanics®) v primenenii k profilaktike osteo-artrita posle odnostoronnej amputatsii nizhnej konechnosti [The theory of the internal hydraulic exoskeleton and the Sanomechanics (Sanomechanics®) system in application to the prevention of osteoarthritis after unilateral amputation of the lower limb,]. Fizicheskaya i reabilitacionnaya medicina [Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine]. 2021;3(1):8-18. (In Russian).