Gabibov Islamagomed Magomedovich, Grand PhD in Biological sciences, senior researcher, Research Institute for Human Hygiene, Occupational Pathology and Ecology of Federal Medical and Biological Agency, Bekhtereva Street 1, building 3 R, St. Petersburg, 192019, Russian Federation. Tel.: +7 (921) 577-75-67; е-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
In the heading: Original researches
Year: 2019 Volume: 1 Journal number: 4
Article type: scientific and practical
UDC: 612.84_612.6 (072)
Introduction. The development of innovative technologies, using natural influences or the adaptation of existing rehabilitation methods, as applied to children with disabilities, is a task of paramount importance. It is known that the development of cerebral paralysis and other disorders of the brain and vision is the result of negative effects on the child from the moment of conception and further development. It should be noted that such disorders as amblyopia, congenital and acquired myopia of varying severity, cataracts, glaucoma, strabismus, hyperopia and congenital and acquired nystagmus can be of a purely nervous nature, although these disorders are largely associated with muscle function and are referred to ophthalmology. Studies in higher animals have shown that neurons of each level of the visual system have their own specific functional characteristics, different from the characteristics of neurons of other levels of the visual analyzer. The neurons of the retina and subcortical zones are tuned to a higher frequency spectrum (1–15 cycles/angl.deg. and higher) than the neurons of the occipital and temporoparietal zones of the cortex, which are tuned to the low-frequency spectrum from 0.1 to 0.05 cycles/angl.deg.
The aid is to develop methods for the early diagnosis and treatment of various forms of visual impairment in children and adults.
Materials and methods. Based on these data, we have developed methods for the early diagnosis and treatment of various forms of visual impairment in children and adults. The study presented in this paper consists of three parts.
In the first part, an analysis was made of the ratio of the alpha- and beta-rhythms of the electroencephalogram upon presentation of arrays with different spatial-frequency components. In the second part of the study, the presentation of the same spatial-frequency grids was carried out in the form of a test. The third part of the study presents the results obtained by assessing the level of preservation of visual function and restoration of visual function in patients with psychoneurological and visual disorders.
Results. It was found that in all cases with myopia of varying severity, the value of the alpha-rhythm is reduced in comparison with the norm. Statistical analysis by the Mann–Whitney test showed significant differences between the values of the alpha-rhythm in mild myopia and normal (R = 0.2; P<0.05). With moderate myopia a decrease in the alpha rhythm is observed to a greater extent in projection areas – up to 5–7% (R = 0.1; P<0.05) than in associative areas – up to 10–15% (R = 0.2; P<0.05). With myopia of the high severity a significant decrease in the value of the alpha rhythm is observed in associative areas – up to 1–7% (R = 0.07; P<0.05) than in projection areas – up to 3–30% (R = 0,2; P<0.05). As a result, it was found that with mild myopia the retina mainly suffers, where the level of visual function is 60%, respectively, for the right and left eyes. The level of preservation of visual function in the subcortical zones is about 65–70%, respectively, for the right and left eyes, and in the occipital zone is about 75% for both eyes, in a norm of 80%. With moderate myopia the level of preservation of visual function decreases: in the level of the retina – up to 25%, in the subcortical zones – up to 20%, in the occipital cortex – up to 25–40% and in associative zones – up to 55–65%. In case of myopia of the high severity the level of preservation of visual function decreases in all areas of the brain and amounts to about 40% at the level of the retina, about 35% in the subcortical zones, and about 10–30% in the occipital region, respectively, for the right and left eyes, and in associative zones –5–20%. It should be noted that the results obtained in this study are fully consistent with the results obtained during registration of the electroencephalogram. Statistical analysis by Fisher’s test revealed significant differences in the positive effect between the first five sessions – right eye about 10% (P<0.05, U = 1,982), left eye – about 12% (P<0,05, U = 2,194) and subsequent sessions – right eye – about 8.1% (P<0.05, U = 2.522), left eye – about 12% (P<0.05, U = 2.358). It should be noted that in the process of stimulation the level of preservation of visual function between the eyes is equalized, thereby strabismus and nystagmus are completely eliminated.
Conclusion. Our data on the testing of the developed methods showed that their use allows to get a stable positive therapeutic effect and eliminates side effects.
1. Gabibov I.M. (2002) Sposob diagnostiki i nemedikamentoznogo lecheniya razlichnyh form zritel’nyh narushenij cheloveka [A method for the diagnosis and non-drug treatment of various forms of visual disturbances of a person]. Patent for invention no. 2219832. Moscow. Bull. no 36. pp. 1-42. (In Russian).
2. Gabibov I.M. (2004) Pribornyj kompleks dlya vyyavleniya razlichnyh form zritel’nyh narushenij cheloveka i vosstanovleniya funkcij zritel’noj sistemy [Instrument complex for detecting various forms of visual disturbances of a person and restoration of the functions of the visual system]. Patent for invention no 41610. Moscow. Bull. no 31. pp. 1-13. 2563371RU. (In Russian).
3. Gabibov I.M. (2013) Mezhpolusharnaya asimmetriya i strukturnye osnovy mezhnejronnoj integracii [Interhemispheric asymmetry and structural foundations of interneuronal integration]. ISBN: 978-3- 659-44202-5, Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, 265 p. (In Russian).
4. Gabibov I.M. (2017) Integrativnaya deyatel’nost’ i plastichnost’ v nejronnyh setyah talamoparietal’noj sistemy mozga cheloveka i zhivotnyh [Integrative activity and plasticity in the neural networks of the thalamoparietal system of the brain of humans and animals]. Publishing House: «Super-Publisher», Sankt- Peterburg, 236 p. (In Russian).
5. Gabibov I.M., Bajlo L.D. (1992) Prostranstvenno- chastotnye harakteristiki receptivnyh polej nejronov 21 polya zritel’noj kory koshki [Spatial-frequency characteristics of receptive fields of neurons 21 fields of the visual cortex of a cat]. Fiziol. journal them. I.M.Sechenova. vol. 78, no. 5. р. 1-8. (In Russian).
6. Gabibov I.M., Pirieva T.G., Lobanova Zh.V., Babushkin V.I. (2012) Novye metody diagnostiki i biokorrekcii funkcional’nyh rasstrojstv razlichnyh otdelov golovnogo mozga i zritel’noj sistemy [New methods for the diagnosis and biocorrection of functional disorders of various parts of the brain and visual system]. On Sat “The solution to the problem of ensuring chemical safety in the Russian Federation”. Under. ed. doctors honey. sciences, prof. V.R. Rembovsky. Saint- Petersburg, pp. 173 – 185. (In Russian).
7. Gabibov I.M., Sibarov D.A., Seredkin Yu.A. (2015) Sposob ocenki funkcional’nogo sostoyaniya golovnogo mozga cheloveka [A method for assessing the functional state of the human brain]. Patent for invention no 2563371RU.
Moscow, p. 11. (In Russian).
8. Gabibov I.M., Gusejnov G.M. (2018) V sb: Reabilitaciya – XXI veke: Tradicii i innovacii [Sat: Rehabilitation – XXI Century: Traditions and Innovations]. Federal Scientific Center for the Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities named after G.A. Albrechta, p. 126-128. (In Russian).
9. Gabibov I.M., Hachaturova E.V. (2019) Mozg i psihicheskaya deyatel’nost’[Brain and mental activity]. Publishing House “IP Seleznev G.P.” Saint-Petersburg, 154 p. (In Russian).
10. Gabibov I.M., Baulo L.D. (1991) Spatial-frequency characteristics of neurons receptive fields in area 21 of cat visual cortex/ Perception. vol. 2, no 1. p. 105-106. 11. Gabibov I.M. (2017) Effect of psychoemotional state, stress, anxiety and fear in the evelopment of the brain and organism as a whole. In mat. XIII International interdisciplinary congress “Neuroscience for medicine and psychology”. Sudak, Crimea. RU. p. 120.